International Knowledge Transfer from University to Industry: A Systematic Literature Review
International knowledge transfer contributes to the competitiveness of enterprises and regions, to the ranking of universities, and to solving common global problems. Based on a systematic literature review, the main purpose of the current study is to explore the channels, motivations, activities and outcomes, and inuencing factors of university to industry international knowledge transfer (U-I IKT), and understand how the concept is related to the internationalisation of R&D, innovation systems and higher education. The paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge by creating an integrated framework for understanding U-I IKT. It proposes that U-I IKT can be conceptualised on the basis of two dimensions – on the one hand, as an activity that has distinct channels, motivations, activities and outcomes, and inuencing factors. On the other hand, U-I IKT can be seen as a stream of research on its own right, albeit overlapping with other areas of the internationalisation of knowledge transfer, namely the internationalisation of innovation systems, firm R&D activities and higher education institutions.